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Day 3 / Jour 3

Resources, Material, and relations

Point of view of Geo-politics, ecology, economy)

In Dakar, skillsets have a geographical location.
Wendy knows where to get a mosquito net in Dakar, but not in Brussels.

Where does your material comes from?
Is it easily accessible?

Blanca Callén 'This is not waste' / Ceci n'est pas de déchet

* Scraping politics
European law trying to regulate top-bottom
does not inlcude what is happening in informal spaces
politicadchatarra.wordpress.com: blog with news on social/ecological/economical conflicts about waste
-> focus on 3 phenomenons in Spain
* www.obsoletos.org -> http://obsoletos.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/obsoletos-070500-jail.box_.02-500x375.jpg
* www.cyclicka.org people with low income learn to repair computers

* Informal waste pickers (migrants taking waste from streets + middleman who sells the scrap to traders)
with crisis local people also started to do this, collecting metals & cardboard
1 key tool: magnet (to know what is ferous or not ferous)

e-waste: selected, exported to Africa and sold in second market there
difficult business
go passed Maroccan traders, they define the market
use fire to peel cables
plastic is less valuable
most valuable is copper -> hierarchical pyramid, the highest only take largest parts, smaller parts are more work
information is a ressource, not easily shared
ex. big heating, but guy did not know how to open it
tries to make a deal: if you open it, I give a piece
the one who knew did not want to do it: once he shows, the other becomes a competitor
'even for smashing things, you have to know how to do it'
ex guy has contact with school, council asks money to take computers away / asks to take computers away
brings it to middleman who takes 1€/computer, this one takes largest copper pieces and sells it on
some dream of taking processors, because there is gold in it
but it is very difficult to take it out
cfr Leuven: 2 large boxes of processors, disks etc -> 30€ (not worth the effort for Wim)

Practises she observed
* Collection
you learn to detect quickly in the streets
* Refurbish
'In africa everything is mended but not in Europe. Here you just change the pieces'
In Africa if you don't have the piece, you make it
try to extend llife of material
* Hack
transform materials, shapes or functions
expand possibilities of product
* Take it apart
put this practise in dialogue with feminist literature on 'care'
is taking apart sthg 'care'?
they have to break things to have money to survive
breaking things allows to live in illegal situations
ex in the beginning: trying to keep thing alive, f.ex. bed frame - don't cut it! - but I don't have space to transport it, so I need to cut it... is context of person who needs the money, he cannot sell in the market, you need ID card to sell in second hand market/permissions on fleemarket
-> ethical vision of interdependence between humans & humans & machiens

In Spain: transition point between metal regime to e-waste regime
before computers were treated as metal 'black box' (material/consumer), now they're treated as 'open & modular object' (function/post-consumer)
now system is full of leakage because companies try to avoid to pay money for recycling
ex consumer organisation (OCU) put gps in 15 different devices (2011), 2 or 3 were treated ok, most ended up in landfields, some waiting in port to be exported
Video describing the project: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RBWFUn5_6qE
A related article: Spain: More than 70% of electronic waste management is uncontrolled  http://phys.org/news/2012-09-spain-electronic-uncontrolled.html

Relations informal practises vs formal institutional circuits
-> informally recycled materials are reintroduced in market - geopolitical circuit of 2nd hand markets
-> police looks away, allowing avoids social tension with migrants
-> networks for donation
Proposals for design & production
-> computers should be more modular, more durable, easy openness
-> 'green' economies
-> point for 'green' exchange

Related ideas
Linda Kronman, Andreas Zingerle and Ushi Reiter. Behind the smart world – analyzing 22 hard drives from a West African e-waste dump
We bought 22 hard-drives at an e-waste dump in Ghana. From 5 of them we recovered data and we bring this data to this years 32C3 Congress!
Together we want to explore questions like:
   What kind of data did we find on this hard-drives?
   How can this data be (ab)used?
   How would you deal with this data breach?

* Objections
how to live together in more sustainable ways
why objects are more/less durable
Announcement: looking for people with objects they want to get rid off
-> database with card for every object
-> death letter for object you want to get rid off
-> love letter for object you want to keep forever
-> possible values + life trajectories of objects

* Restarters Barcelona
cfr Repair café (BE)
learn people how to repair something
important to document every repair

* Recy Hub - http://www.recyhub.com/ - Tools for e-waste recyclers
idea started in Ghana - makerspace Accra
tools for e-waste recyclers
started on master project to separate plastic of rest: bicycle cable shredder cut it in small pieces
afterwards you can separate using water

Situation in other cities?
EU/NY: community surviving on glass, cupper, metal, picking up waste
deals with street cleaners
the older machines more copper to find?
all current transformers reduced amount of copper in cables
copper stolen from train racks in BE
'citymine': company gathering old stuff
bigger companies in SP have partnerships with waste companies

system of recycling shops in BE
reintroducing hardware & selling with 6 months garantee
broken stuff is sold per weight
is also a way to reinsert people back into employment circuit
Antwerp/Bxl: you pay to drop your waste in recycle center // you cannot take out waste (negociate with people before they drop)

Modu: problème énorme à Dakar
bcp de déchets informatiques/électroniques
-> people bring machines to dump, on the dump people are taking out valuable parts
-> containers coming from Europe with waste: 
    * these machines have fucntioned for 10 years, will only live for 1y or couple months
    * most of these machines consume a lot of energy
ewaste became industry 
people without training in electronics working on breaking down machines, only work with hammer, is dangerous (f.ex old tv's)
indian community are the ones who buy all old material in Dakar
7000F/cube ( 7000 XOF in EUR = 10.67€)
inverse logic: people got money & they had to find the metal
China has deal with Senegalese government to buy all e-waste (because they don't have mines in Ch)
Related? Buy e-waste from Senegal on Alibaba: http://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/Metal-Scraps_121021813.html

Million of people work on this, it is a dangerous job
-> cfr Recy Hub project to develop tools for better recycling -> take advantage of the ressources that arrive, not only pollution
But if you're looking for 2nd hand piece in Dakar, you can find it!

There is a Basel convention that prevents moving e-waste between countries. But nobody respects it.

Mali: only e-wast since 2y by individuals, drive from Europe to Africa but don't come in through Senegal (forbidden to take in non new material)
they don't have a port
Dakar is only 3rd port they use
also Indian community that takes care of metal
2 transformation factories to extract materials and export again to Senegal
since 2y forbidden to bring in non biodegradable plastic (law was voted in 2010, only came in effect about 2 years ago)
problem: no recycling system in place for e-waste, no knowledge + pieces are smaller and smaller produced by robots

no tv till 80s
privileged relations with China, easy to get replacement parts, Malinese go there & import (Malinese people don't need a visa to go there)
Zaineb: no e-waste in Marocco
everyone is recycling, only plastic bags & food
black market for broken things / hackerspace market to repair
Derb Ghallef (درب غلف) -> https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Derb_Ghallef
«La capitale économique du Maroc abrite un souk entièrement dédié aux nouvelles technologies. Véritable temple de la bidouille, ce marché est le "paradis du piratage et de la contrefaçon".»

similar to Mali
waste market in hands of Chinese
people prefer to give old machines & get little money/kilo
on administrative level, when reneweing machines, governers prefer to take them home
Maliens/Nigériens collect waste in neighbourhoods, break & separate & resell

Mali/Togo little inhabitants compared to Senegal 

Question time

- The pl a ce of waste in your {practice|collective|lab|space}?

- How do you deal with it? (stock/dispose/use/ignore)

- Is re-use/recycle /upcycle on your agenda? How?

- Where do you get your material (wood/electonics/pl a stic)? {Online|local}?

/*¨**********  Trakk ***********/ (Jil & Francois)
- How do you deal with it? (stock/dispose/use/ignore)
It is user responsability. People have to take their trash back (e.g Wasted part of lasercut or milled board) 
For the remaining stuff, Resourcerie Namuroise, container park or municipality service.
- Is re-use/recycle on your agenda? How?
No :'( Well yes, kind of... See below.
- Where do you get your material (wood/electonics/palstic)? {Online|local} ?
Wood: Local (in the city)
Plastic: Online, but in europe
Electronic: Online
We have a partnership with La Resourcerie Namuroise ( http://www.laressourcerie.be/) that provide us with second hand material (e.g. woodboard from closet). They collect waste, for reuse, upcycle and upgrade purposes.


- The place of waste in your {practice|collective|lab|space}?  
On a différentes approches vis-à-vis du matériau, en tout cas on a toujours un point de vu critique. Provenance, à quelle économie ou industrie il fait appel. On a beau faire des projets ouverts, on se base souvent sur des technologies et infrastructures propriétaires et guerrières. ca nous embête : Des moteurs à énergies fossile ou nucléaire du silicium. C'est un héritage à partir duquel on essaye de forker, avoir comme base l'industrie mais tendre vers la désindustrialisation. Au début de rep rap les kits n'existait pas encore, les imprimantes se sont construites à partir de pièces récupérées sur des imprimantes "classiques". Le projet d'extrudeur allait dans le même sens, en s'appuyant sur les ressources présentes en Afrique de l'Ouest, En tout cas il y une idée très globalisante (mit) à dire qu'un projet peut être répliqué -tel quel- n'importe où.

-How do you deal with it? (stock/dispose/use/ignore)
Il faut trouver le bon rapport entre réplicablité et ressources particulières liées à un territoire. 

-Is re-use/recycle on your agenda? How? 
Pas de planning puisque qu'on fonctionne par projet

-Where do you get your material (wood/electonics/plastic)? {Online|local}?    
Projet de dême géodésique (dominik)
Le pin douglas vient de la scierie du coin et la paille est celle du fermier d'en face. Les visserie "d'arcelor mittal" à dunkerque ou peut etre de "Hebei Iron and Steel" en chine, qui sait ? A belleville sur loire il y a une centrale qui produit 17,8 TWh d'électricité, pratique pour alimenter notre scie circulaire Ryobi ;)


- The place of waste in your {practice|collective|lab|space}?
In my persona, in the band i am called Poubelle, which means trash can.
The charachter is based on the Tsukumogami: one of the artifact spirits,  which are living in old objects. If an object is thrown away or left aside, it gains self-awareness. Upcyle waste into the new, the now and recreate value. Convert, downcycle. Make trashion. Gather used, thrown-out, found and repurposed elements. Generate, incinerate, devastate. Sustain my teachings. I got wise by all the found traces, memories, knowledge and experiences. Feed my energy. Having and disposing, composting, rotting, fermenting. Waste and Want: get rid of excess. Any rags, any bones, Use it - wear it , get in the scrap, I spit it out. Reduce,

In collective/collaborative spaces which I enter I have a tendency to organize the trash in different categories, so I have an overview of what is at disposal and what I can  reuse, recycle and recover.

- How do you deal with it? (stock/dispose/use/ignore)
In S14 the hackbase where I am based, we have a media cave where we stock in different categories: electronics (hardware), wood, metal, electricity, lamps, tools, cleaning products, ....) or according to specific projects.

- Is re-use/recycle on your agenda? How?

Technoshamanist approach ~ 

- Where do you get your material (wood/electonics/plastic)? {Online|local}?
In th emediacave of S14,  'For free' (freecycle online: http://www.2dehands.be/markt/?locale=nl&p=be&prijsoptie=gratis ), LETS, Wastebins in public space, Open trunks in recycle centers, group orders, order in local shops/business and if not found in physical places & through social relations,  than I order online with the bigger companies.

FabLakeke (futur fablab molenbeek)
- The place of waste in your {practice|collective|lab|space}?
not for the moment but mccs use a lot off wood for it's expo and theater decor ...we will use the waste at the end of expo or theater  

- How do you deal with it? (stock/dispose/use/ignore)
we'll try to use as little toxic stuff as possible, and reuse what we can. Since we'll work with kids we cannot use "not so good" stuff

- Is re-use/recycle on your agenda? How?
short term ...

- Where do you get your material (wood/electonics/plastic)? {Online|local}?

/ Makea Tu Vida /
- The place of waste in your {practice|collective|lab|space}?
Waste is the starting point of work of the collective, is the raw material we use for making of furniture, structures and systems for the Habitat through dynamics of collective design and construction.

- How do you deal with it? (stock/dispose/use/ignore)
We detect the material needs we have, we look for local providers and we use them. When we finish, what we haven't used, it goes back to its initial point.

- Is re-use/recycle on your agenda? How?
Of course, it’s our work.

- Where do you get your material (wood/electonics/plastic)? {Online|local}?
The raw material we use to work it usually comes from different kind of waste mannagers (formal or informal, private and public institutions/organizations/companies). Other auxiliar materials (like screws, nails, framing squares, etc) be buy them in hardware stores.

FabLab Leuven
- The pl    a    ce of waste in your {practice|collective|lab|space}?   
Big bins on the lasers, smaller in the rest of the lab :-)  
    -     How do you deal with it? (stock/dispose/use/ignore)    
   Vangansewinkel, Afval bestaat niet (translation, there is no thing like garbage 
    -     Is re-use/recycle on your agenda? How?    
People can search the lasercut bins to search for whatever they need, no special programs or so    
    - Where do you get your material (wood/electonics/pl    a    stic)? {Online|local}?    
  wood, local, plastics, local, electro online  

_____   AREA 3001   ______

- The place of waste in your {practice|collective|lab|space}?
        recycle bin
- How do you deal with it? (stock/dispose/use/ignore)
- Is re-use/recycle on your agenda? How?
        no, we mainly hack new or recent stuff (or develop our own stuff)
- Where do you get your material (wood/electonics/plastic)? {Online|local}?
        Stock or scrap from Fablab Leuven, scrap from local woodworkers, order it online ( af.nl for specific wood in low quantities )

______________________Fablab Genk________________________

- The place of waste in your {practice|collective|lab|space}?

Garbage container unsorted. 

- How do you deal with it? (stock/dispose/use/ignore)

dispose every 2 weeks by van gansewinkel, big pieces of the cnc are reused 

- Is re-use/recycle on your agenda? How?


- Where do you get your material (wood/electonics/plastic)? {Online|local}?

Local woodshop, local plasticshop. Special items are orderd online
Electronics at farnell

----- iMAL ---

- The place of waste in your {practice|collective|lab|space}?
Garbage container sorted and special place for re-use. 
A part of our waste is reused by members. Mostly from the laser cutter, pieces of MDF, Plexiglas… The rest of our waste goes to « bruxelles propreté » and is sorted according to Brussels’ rules.

- How do you deal with it? (stock/dispose/use/ignore)
Member are encouraged to use waste more than to buy some components. 
During workshops, our moto is « Scrap is gold ». Members brings old printers to take motor, old electronics to take many components in place to buy brand new.
But the major problem is you have to find the documentation certain components / materials. Especially if ou are discovering electronic.
Ify ou don't know the chemical composition of materials, some usage can be dangerous.

Members and artists have differents approach to use waste. And many projects use them in an artistics way.

- Is re-use/recycle on your agenda? How?

- Where do you get your material (wood/electonics/plastic)? {Online|local}?
To find new materials, we have a wiki page : http://wiki.imal.org/howto/where-buy-materials
Members contribute to this page. It’s either local and website. We also buy bundles of electronics on the second-handmarket. Some of those components are free to our members. Members spontaneously give electronics.

Some artistic projects :
    many many ones.

Libre Objet

- The place of waste in your {practice|collective|lab|space}?

- How do you deal with it? (stock/dispose/use/ignore)
- Is re-use/recycle on your agenda? How?

- Where do you get your material (wood/electonics/plastic)? {Online|local}?